Catalog C-D


Cabbage tree – see Cordyline

CALLICARPA / BEAUTYBERRY / Verbenaceae / Dazzling fruits are the feature in this large group of evergreen and deciduous shrubs from tropical and warm temperate parts of Asia, Australia and North America. Clusters of tiny lavender or pink flowers are just the prelude for dense clusters of small berries in metallic lilac to magenta purple, rarely white. Simple, ovate leaves of dull green turn to soft yellow, cream or purple as the fruits color up. Callicarpas are easy to grow in any decent soil. Woodland plants, they are best in part shade; all the species here are deciduous.

Callicarpa bodinieri / BODINIER BEAUTYBERRY / Perhaps the showiest species, with its inch wide globes of intense magenta purple berries hugging the branches between each pair of leaves. Grows 6-8 ft. tall and somewhat wider. Narrowly ovate 3-4 in. leaves color soft yellow, complimenting the fruit beautifully. The fruit lasts well into winter. Z 6

Callicarpa dichotoma ‘Issai’ / ISSAI BEAUTYBERRY / No, this is the showiest. At least it displays its small but profuse clusters of vivid lilac purple berries for maximum visibility. A smaller shrub, to 4-6 ft. tall, with 2-3 in. pointed leaves coloring yellow and orange in fall. Z 5

Callicarpa japonica / JAPANESE BEAUTYBERRY / A tall shrub to 10 ft., with slender leaves that take on artful tones of cream and lilac in fall. At the same time, clusters of lilac fruits create a purple mist through the branches. Z 7

Callicarpa japonica ‘Leucocarpa’ / A white berried form, with light green leaves coloring yellow in fall before dropping to reveal an unexpectedly spectacular hailstorm of berries. Very effective and long-lasting. As a bonus, the flowers are notably lemon-scented.

CALLISTEMON / BOTTLEBRUSH / Myrtaceae / These flamboyant Australian evergreen shrubs are worthy subjects for a warm wall. Narrow, aromatic leaves, often opening red or silvery, and cylindrical, brush-like flower clusters add an exotic splash to any planting. Each individual flower is a bunch of long stamens, usually red or cream, but sometimes in shades of magenta, pink or yellow, and dozens of these encircle the stem to create the bottle brush. The woody capsules left behind when the stamens fall contain the tiny seeds. Many species are wetland plants at home, but most seem to grow in any soil. Below Zone 9, they need a warm, sheltered spot.

Callistemon brachyandrus / PRICKLY BOTTLEBRUSH / Aptly named for its sharp-tipped leaves, this is a large shrub to 10 ft. tall and wide. Flowers in neon red over many months. Z 8-9

Callistemon citrinus ‘Jeffersii’ / An upright shrub to 6-8 ft. tall. Narrow, slightly bluish leaves and flowers in exciting shades of rose, carmine and lilac-red. Z 9

Callistemon pityoides  ( C. sieberi, in part) / ALPINE BOTTLEBRUSH / From the mountains of Tasmania, this is the hardiest species. A rounded 3-4 ft. shrub with prickly, 3/4 in. leaves and small but showy brushes in creamy yellow. Z 7

Callistemon sieberi – see Callistemon pityoides

Callistemon subulatus / HARDY RED BOTTLEBRUSH / Our name for this well tested species. Glowing red brushes tip the slender, arching branches of this 5-6 ft. shrub. Leaves are narrow, glossy, sharp, 1- 1 1/2 in. long. Little damage at 15 F, recovers well from 10 F. Z 8

Callistemon viridiflorus / GREEN BOTTLEBRUSH / An erect shrub, often taller than wide, to 8-10 ft. Narrow, pointed, 3/4 in. leaves of dark green make a handsome texture. Small brushes of lime-sherbet green are surprisingly showy. Z 8

CALLUNA / HEATHER / Ericaceae / This wide-ranging shrub of European mountains and moors differs from Erica in its scale-like, rather than needle-like leaves, and smaller flowers. Heathers are swept with color in summer and early fall, with flowers in white and shades of pink, lilac and rose. Some are even brighter in winter, with foliage in red, orange or gold, a heartwarming sight. Add colorful grasses, purple phormium, euphorbias, winter heaths, etc. to chase away the gray. Growth is fast in sunny, well-drained locations, where heathers make excellent groundcovers. They grow 8-24 in. tall and usually twice as wide, depending on cultivar. A light trimming in early spring keeps them full. They are hardy to Z 4

Calluna vulgaris ‘Beoley Gold’ / Showy heather 1 ft. tall and twice as wide. Bright yellow highlights to its grass green foliage; white flowers in summer.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Elsie Frye’ / Fairly large plant with long branches tipped with large clusters of double light rose flowers. Foliage deep green.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Firefly’ / Colorful, mounding 12-18 in. tall plant spreading wider. Bright green foliage, tinted pink and rust in summer flares up into paprika red in winter, after a late summer display of rosy pink flowers.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Flamingo’ / Growing a foot tall and twice as wide, this heather starts the year with coral red tips on all its many branches. Summer brings spikes of rose flowers.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Gold Haze’ / Medium sized plant to 12 in. high, with lime green foliage well highlighted with yellow in winter. White summer flowers.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Purple Pyramid ‘ / compact, rather upright plant 2 ft. by 2 ft. with deep green foliage and flowers of a striking dark red-violet.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Robert Chapman’ / One of the most colorful, this plant grows 12 in. tall, 2-3 ft. wide. Lime green foliage blushing gold and orange intensifies to flaming vermilion in winter. Magenta flowers in summer are a bonus.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Ross Hutton’ / Upright, rounded, dark green plant 18 in. tall and a bit wider is tipped in deep rose red flowers in early fall.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Silver Knight’ / Beautiful silver gray foliage is the perfect foil for soft lavender flowers in summer. A low, wide plant with great possibilities.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Spring Torch’ / A larger heather, 2 ft. tall and 3 ft. wide, with plumes of bright green foliage that are tipped with pale yellow or orange in spring. Rose pink flowers in summer.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Wickwar Flame’ / Lime and lemon foliage of summer, accompanied by cheeky rose flowers, heats up to vivid orange and amber in winter. A tall, loosely rounded plant, 20 in. high and 2 ft. across.

CALOCEDRUS / Cupressaceae / These few conifers differ from Thuja in having the tips of their flattened, scaly leaves lining up in fours, rather that in pairs. Also, the cones are a fan-like arrangement of long thick scales. Most species are in the southwest Pacific region; the one below is a west coast native.

Calocedrus decurrens ( Libocedrus d.)/ INCENSE CEDAR / A beautiful narrow conifer of western mountains, from central Oregon to northwest Mexico. Flattened sprays of bright green foliage stand out from its fluted red-brown trunk. Its nearly columnar habit makes this tree a popular landscape feature, where it grows well in most situations. Moderate growth to 60-100 ft. tall or more. Sun or part shade; drought-hardy; Z 6

CALYCANTHUS / SPICEBUSH / Calycanthaceae / Anywhere from 2-5 species of large deciduous shrubs from North America and Asia. Leaves are in pairs and the bark has a spicy scent when peeled. Flowers of the American species have many narrow, curling petals of maroon red; those of the Chinese species have broader, flatter petals in pink-white. Large seeds are held in oval woody capsules. Uncommon shrubs, interesting, and easy to grow.

Calycanthus chinensis (Sinocalycanthus c.) / CHINESE SWEETSHRUB / A rare and recent introduction, this shrub is imperiled in the wild and merits a place in the garden. Glossy, round-ovate leaves up to 6 in. long and bright green, make a big impression by themselves. The exotic flowers take the spotlight in late spring or summer, 3 in. wide, with broad petals of palest creamy rose surrounding a smaller cup tinted pale yellow. Best in part shade and moist soil, but not really fussy; Z 6

Calycanthus occidentalis / WESTERN SPICEBUSH / A large deciduous shrub of California where it favors moist woodland and scrub. Sandpapery, long pointed, deep green leaves spaced well apart give an open look. Flowers resembling 2 in. maroon water lilies sit on the branches here and there during summer, wafting a scent of red wine. Woody, goblet-shaped seed capsules hang on through winter. A must in every native garden out here but attractive in almost any setting. Sun or shade; drought-hardy; Z 7

CAMELLIA / Theaceae / Sophisticated stars of mild-climate landscapes, the camellias are surprisingly rugged and drought resistant. Only a few of these 200 or so species of Asian evergreen shrubs and trees are cultivated, but they have given rise to thousands of cultivars. Most appreciated perhaps are those that bloom in winter. The sasanqua camellias begin the season in fall and winter and the japonicas finish in spring, with various hybrids blooming sometimes the entire time. Camellias grow best in part shade and always show their appreciation for fairly rich, moist, well-drained soil. All have florist-worthy foliage. Single flowers shatter when finished instead of hanging on brown and unattractive as doubles do.

Camellia ‘Appleblossom’ (not C. sasanqua ‘Appleblossom’) / First rate shrub growing 6-8 ft. tall with much greater spread. Long branches furnished with large, pointed, polished leaves and, from winter through spring, large single white flowers blushed pink. Splendid on a wall or fence. Drought-hardy; Z 8

Camellia ‘Lamertsii’ / Little known but very nice hybrid making a spreading small tree to 12 ft. or more. Narrow, glossy leaves and small, single, cupped flowers, white tipped pink, in early spring. Z 7-8

Camellia japonica / JAPANESE CAMELLIA / Native not only to Japan but to China and Korea as well, this popular shrub or tree reaches 20-30 ft. tall, though most cultivars are much smaller. Leaves vary from long-pointed to almost round, but are always glossy. Flowers may appear in winter in mild years or warmest zones, but typically open February to April, in white, rose, pink, or red, sometimes variegated, in many formats from single to formal double. Though they tolerate sun, these shrubs look better with some shade, taking on a looser, more graceful outline. Z 8, perhaps 7 with shelter.

Camellia japonica ‘Akashi Gata’ / A strong, handsome, spreading plant to 12 ft. tall. Long, tapered leaves of glossy medium green make the perfect background for impressive 4-5 in. semi-double blooms in rich salmon red.

Camellia japonica ‘Amabilis’ / Elegant single white flowers with broad, notched petals around a crown of golden stamens. Blooms in early to mid spring. Shrub or tree to 15 ft.

Camellia japonica ‘Casilda’ / Seldom offered shrub to 10 ft. with large, single flowers of coral red. Very showy.

Camellia japonica ‘Otome’ / Semi-double flowers in bright cerise-red showing off a frilled center of slender petaloids. Blooms in mid-spring on a spreading plant to 8 ft.

Camellia japonica ‘Sylvia’ / Shrub to 15 ft. with slender, pointed leaves and large, cupped flowers in bright red in March.

Camellia japonica ‘Wilmetta’ / Lovely old cultivar with rounded, polished, convexed leaves and large, single flowers with broad, pale pink petals and a showy crown of stamens. Blooms late January on.

Camellia japonica x C. cuspidata / A large shrub or tree to 20 ft. tall and wide. Relatively small, ovate leaves make it an attractive background but you will want to get close to it when the lightly fragrant, 2 in. flowers in palest pink show in February and March.

Camellia oleifera / TEA OIL PLANT / A major source of tea oil, used in Asian cooking and cosmetics, this is a large shrub or tree to 30 ft. tall. Small, shiny leaves make a sparkling rounded crown. White, fragrant flowers 2 1/2 in. wide open in spring. One of the hardiest species, this plant is used to create extra hardy hybrids. Z 7

Camellia pitardii / Rare and stately small tree to 20 ft., with handsomely embossed, leathery 3 in. leaves. The exquisite 2-3 in. flowers, with wavy petals in palest rose shading darker at the edges, and deep orange stamens, open February and March. Z 8

Camellia reticulata f simplex/ The most spectacular and storied camellia, the species was once known only from Chinese gardens, where only tender cultivars were grown. This wild single form is hardier and well worth trying in Zones 8 and up. Leathery, embossed, long-pointed leaves up to 6 in. long are reason enough to plant it. The stunning 4-5 in. flowers in translucent watermelon red, opening February to April, make it a must-have. Give it a warm, partly shaded spot and room to reach 15 ft. or more.

Camellia sasanqua / Smaller leaves and very early, often fragrant flowers distinguish this from C. japonica. Sasanqua camellias vary from low and sprawling to tree-like. Their usually long, supple branches make them ideal for espalier, and a sheltered wall protects the flowers from harsh winter weather. Even a few of these flowers shining through the winter gloom is a joy. Most cultivars make enough buds to quickly replace any flowers lost to frost. Sasanquas take full sun or shade. Z 8

Camellia sasanqua ‘Briar Rose’ / Non-stop show of dainty, single, rosy pink flowers from fall through winter on a low, wide shrub 4-5 ft. tall.

Camellia sasanqua ‘Cleopatra’ /Starry light pink semi-double flowers, shading darker at the edges, open in late fall and winter on a fairly compact 3-4 ft. shrub.

Camellia sasanqua ‘Crimson King’ / Wide-spreading, somewhat open shrub 10 ft. across, but easily trained to a wall. Single flowers of ruby red open late fall through winter- a cheering sight.

Camellia sasanqua ‘Hana Jiman’ / Beautiful fall-blooming shrub with lax, spreading branches carrying glossy leaves and single white flowers blushed pink. Striking companion to fall-coloring shrubs.

Camellia sasanqua ‘Mine no Yuki’ / Thick glossy leaves on wide-spreading branches studded with large, fragrant, single white flowers fall and winter. Grows 8-10 ft. tall and much wider, but perfect for a wall or fence.

Camellia sasanqua ‘Shishi Gashira’ / Long popular for its low, spreading habit and for its months-long show of small, semi-double, rose red flowers. A delightful, gracefully mounding plant 2-3 ft. tall and twice as wide, flowering winter and spring.

Camellia sasanqua ‘Texas Star’ / A charming large shrub to 6-8 ft. tall, with small leaves on flaring branches, set with starry, deep pink flowers in winter.

Camellia sinensis / TEA / A shrub to 10 ft. with thin, bright green leaves, cultivated for centuries for the world’s tea drinkers. Perfumed, whitish flowers open in fall. Surprisingly hardy, and a fine screen or hedge, but getting a good cup of your own tea takes some study. The shrub is happy in shade, but the best tea is grown in sun. Z 8

Camellia x vernalis ‘Ginryu’ / Single, white, fragrant flowers in late winter. A hybrid of C. japonica and C. sasanqua with thick, glossy leaves on a rounded 8-10 ft. shrub. Z 8

Camellia x williamsii / These hybrids are some of the hardest- working flowering shrubs, blooming for many weeks from late winter through spring. Leaves tend to be small and narrowly ovate, 2-3 in. long, not especially glossy. Most cultivars are strongly upright, even tree-like. They tolerate sun well, but bloom nicely in shade also. Z 8

Camellia x williamsii ‘First Flush’ / Spreading large shrub to 10 ft. tall. The 3-in. flowers are semi-double, palest pink shading darker, opening late winter and spring.

Camellia x williamsii ‘J. C. Williams’ / Magnificent winter bloomer with big, single flowers in shades of light pink on pendulous branches.

Camellia x williamsii ‘Mary Christian’ / Erect shrub or tree to 20 ft. tall. Elegant funnel-like flowers in deep pink February through April. Magnificently showy.

Camellia x williamsii ‘November Pink’ / A lovely single lilac pink on a wide shrub to 8 ft. tall. Seldom starts in November here, but usually midwinter through spring.

CAMPANULA / BELLFLOWER / Campanulaceae / A huge group of annuals, bienmnials and perennials from most of the Northern Hemisphere. Variously bell-shaped flowers, usually blue but sometimes white or pink, are the big feature, but some are also grown for their attractive evergreen foliage. Small capsules contain many tiny seeds. Campanulas vary in their needs, but are usually easy to satisfy.

Campanula takesimana / KOREAN BELLFLOWER / A choice perennial with leafy flowering stems to 2 ft. tall. Slender bells nearly 2 in. long, white stained pink and often dotted red, nod between the narrow 2-3 in. leaves. Best with water and partial shade.

Canadanthus modestus – see Aster modestus

Canelilla – see Hydrangea integrifolia

CAREX / SEDGE / Cyperaceae / Grassy foliage in an array of colors and textures earns the plants in this huge, world-wide genus a place in the garden. Many are wetland plants not adapted to drought, but quite a few take very well to it. Most want sun or light shade. Tiny seeds clustered atop wiry stalks can be interesting, but not generally as decorative as those of true grasses.

Carex albula / NEW ZEALAND HAIR SEDGE / Also known as ‘Frosty Curls’ , this evergreen, delightfully tousled clump of threadlike leaves in palest green grows 12 in. tall and wide. A unique accent, very telling with purple, copper, blue or gray plants. Z 7

Carex buchananii / LEATHERLEAF SEDGE / Fine, wiry leaves in coppery red, often curled at the tip, build a rather narrow, evergreen plant 18-24 in. tall. Fewer people these days think such sedges look ‘dead’ and more gardeners have learned to incorporate them into sophisticated color compositions. Drought-hardy; best in sharp drainage; Z 7

Carex buchananii ‘Red Rooster’ / The color of a Rhode Island Red.

Carex comans / Fine, hairlike leaves arch and droop to form a billowy 12 in. mound. The wild form is green, but most cultivars have a coppery tint. Colors and misty texture make it a standout. Another fascinating, drought-hardy sedge from Newe Zealand. Z 7

Carex comans ‘Bronzina’ / Beautiful old-copper coloring.

Carex mertensii / MERTEN’S SEDGE / A widespread sedge of woodland in the far West, this deciduous species makes a graceful, open clump of 18-24 in. leaves and tight, fat spikes of flowers nodding atop arching stems. Fairly drought-hardy in shade. Z 4

Carex obnupta / BEAKED SEDGE / A common and striking native evergreen sedge with thick, arching, bluish leaves 3 ft. long in an open clump. Nodding brown seed clusters add interest in fall. Needs wet soil or daily watering. Z 4

Carex secta / MAKURU / Beautiful evergreen New Zealand native with fine, bright green leaves often tinged orange in a billowy 2-3 ft. clump. Lush-looking but drought-hardy, a landscape favorite. Z 7

Carex teuisecta ‘Bronzina’ / BRONZINA SEDGE/ A misty 12-18 in. clump of slender leaves in auburn and pale copper. Eccentric all-year color, effective with silver, blue and purple foliage. Sun; drought hardy; Z 8


Carex testacea / ORANGE SEDGE / Thin, wiry leaves of lime green intensely shaded coppery orange make this New Zealand native a most valuable addition to our color palette. Dense and billowy, rounded evergreen plant 12-18 in. high. Sun; drought-hardy; Z 7

Carex tumulicola / BERKELEY SEDGE / Native from here to California, this evergreen 12-18 in. plant makes a beautiful clumpy mini-meadow in light shade. Fine, bright green leaves. Drought-hardy; Z 7

CARPINUS / HORNBEAM / Betulaceae / These several dozen deciduous trees of the North Temperate zone perfectly combine strength and grace. Most are adapted to nearly any soil, hardy to frost and drought, and produce uncommonly hard and useful wood. At the same time, their slender leaves, sinuous framework and wide, graceful branches give them delicate beauty. Early flower tassels lead to fat, pendant clusters of winged seeds. Fall foliage assumes shades of gold. Grayish beige to tan bark shows an attractive pattern of interwoven ribs.

Carpinus caroliniana / AMERICAN HORNBEAM / A wide, 20-30 ft. tree with picturesque habit. Sculpted branches carry narrow, bluish, 4 in. leaves that take on soft reds and yellows in fall. A striking specimen in all seasons. Z 5

Carpinus cordata / HEART-LEAVED HORNBEAM / More rounded, less spreading than most, with a dense 20-30 ft. crown. Heart-shaped, corrugated, 4-5 in. leaves on upturned branches color soft yellow. Narrowly rounded form makes for an ideal street tree or tall screen. From Japan and China. Z 5

Carpinus japonica / JAPANESE HORNBEAM / A wide-spreading tree to 30-40 ft. tall with long, graceful spreading branches. Tiers of 2-4 in. long-pointed, handsomely veined leaves color yellow and russet in fall. Fine small shade tree, highly recommended. Z 7

Carpinus turczaninovii / ROCK HORNBEAM / Well-known in the bonsai world, this small, intricately branched tree from China, Japan and Korea invites artistic shaping. Left alone, it is a 10-15 ft. bushy tree with arching and drooping branches carrying crinkly, 1-2 in. leaves on fine twigs. Foliage opens in coppery shades and finishes deep gold. Z 5

CARYOPTERIS / BLUEBEARD / Lamiaceae / Woody perennials and small deciduous shrubs planted for their puffy blue or violet flowers in late summer and fall. As expected from members of the mint family, the leaves are aromatic, in pairs on square stems. Their flower colors make the bluebeards good mixers, especially with the hot colors of the season. Butterflies love them. Bluebeards like sun and any well-drained soil and they need little water.

Caryopteris x clandonensis / BLUE MIST SHRUB / A clump of many woody-based stems to 2 ft. tall, lined with scalloped, light green 1-2 in. leaves. Puffs of sky blue flowers generously dot the plant in August and September, chiming in beautifully with asters, echinacea and lavatera. Z 5

Caryopteris x clandonensis ‘Dark Knight’ / Flowers a darker cobalt blue; quite a sight in large sweeps.

Caryopteris incanus/ Warmly aromatic leaves of velvety gray-green clothe the reddish stems of this 3 ft. shrub. By the end of summer, the upper leaves are half hidden by clusters of flowers in an intense violet blue.

Cascara – see Rhamnus purshiana

CASSINIA /Asteraceae / Low evergreen shrubs of the Southern Hemisphere with a general look of heather. Tiny rounded or almost scaly leaves, often in interesting shades of bluish or yellowish green, make them a beautiful fit in a garden of heathers, conifers or Mediterranean-type shrubs. Puffy white flowers add interest in summer. Give them sun, good drainage and a warm spot. They are drought tolerant and hardy to Z 8.

Cassinia fulvida ( C. leptophylla var. fulvida) / MOUNTAIN COTTONWOOD / This little New Zealand shrub will never be confused with a poplar, but its feathery white seeds do blow about in the wind. A mounding shrub 2-4 ft. tall and much wider. Tiny, narrowly oval leaves, shiny green above and gold below, line golden twigs. The very pleasing color of this cassinia makes almost any group of plants happier.

Cassinia vauvilliersii var albida / SILVER HEATHER / Another exciting New Zealander. Plumes of heathery, blue gray foliage on silvery twigs. A frothy mound 2 ft. tall and somewhat wider, harmonious with gray senecios, purple heathers, lime green hebes.

CATALPA / CATALPA / Bignoniaceae / These mostly deciduous trees bring the tropics north with their big leaves and impressive flower clusters. Rounded, oval or heart-shaped leaves on long stalks make broad, shady crowns supported by stout branches. Trumpet flowers in large clusters are followed by long, slender, bean-like seed pods. Larger species are features for big spaces; smaller catalpas make lovely patio shade trees. All are fairly drought hardy and easy to grow.

Catalpa bungei / MANCHURIAN CATALPA / A rarely seen but very desirable small tree making a rounded crown to 15-20 ft. tall. Nearly triangular 4-6 in. leaves, often with three shallow lobes, cluster toward the ends of thick branches. Ruffled trumpets of lilac rose make a fine show in summer. Choice specimen for smaller gardens. Z 6

Catalpa speciosa / WESTERN CATALPA / Bright green heart-shaped leaves a foot long give a tropical look to this hardy Midwestern tree. Tall clusters of flaring, purple-dotted white flowers create an early summer spectacle. Giant string beans -not edible- hang from the sparse branches in winter. To 50 ft. or more, with a wild silhouette. Z 5

CATANANCHE / Asteraceae / A small group of herbaceous perennials from Europe. Only the one below is much grown.

Catananche caerulea / CUPID’S DART / Foot-wide clumps of long, almost grassy leaves sprout a summer-long bouquet of 1 1/2 in. bright blue flowers atop wiry stems 15-20 in. long. Both the flowers and the flame-shaped silvery seed pods that follow are excellent for cutting, lasting indefinitely. Seldom seen, but rugged, drought hardy and beautiful. Z 7

Catchfly – see Lychnis

CEANOTHUS / CALIFORNIA LILAC / Rhamnaceae / These mostly evergreen shrubs carry a theme of small leaves and generous clusters of tiny flowers in white or various shades of blue. They inhabit sunny, well-drained slopes, mostly in California, with a few extending into the Northwest, Southwest and farther east. Those with blue flowers are most in demand- it’s amazing to see so much of that rare flower color. For all their toughness and beauty, ceanothus demand only reasonably sunny, well-drained conditions and a dry summer. They are fast growing on even poor soil and need no fertilizer, since they fix nitrogen in the soil.

Ceanothus ‘Blue Jeans’ / Squarish, 1/2 in. holly-toothed leaves on long, straight twigs give an interesting texture to this 4-5 ft. evergreen shrub. Denim-blue flowers generously dot the branches in spring. Z 8

Ceanothus ‘Blue Cushion’ / A 2-3 ft. high spreading mound of tiny, glossy leaves on wiry branches, enveloped in sky blue flowers in June. One of the hardier cultivars, good as a bank cover. z8

Ceanothus ‘Concha’ / One of the best hybrids, a luxuriant, wide-spreading evergreen shrub to 6 ft. tall. Narrow, crinkly-edged 1 in. leaves are nearly hidden in spring by deep cobalt blue flowers opening from red buds. May re-bloom lightly in fall. Z 8

Ceanothus ‘Dark Star’ / Popular for its deep blue flowers which completely envelop the plant in late spring. Tiny, crinkly, oval evergreen leaves 1/4 in. long give a detailed texture just right with other dry sun favorites- manzanitas, lavender, rockrose. Grows 4-5 ft. tall and somewhat wider. Z 8

Ceanothus ‘Gloire de Versailles’ / A hybrid of the blue Ceanothus coeruleus of Mexico and the very hardy, white-flowered C. americanus of the eastern US, this semi-evergreen 6 ft. shrub combines the best of both. Large spikes of powder blue flowers rise among roundish, 1 1/2 in. light green leaves in late summer and fall. Lovely with asters, late anemones and fall foliage. Z 6

Ceanothus gloriosus / PT REYES CEANOTHUS / Valuable evergreen groundcover shrub making wide carpets of 1 in. holly-toothed leaves in light green. Clusters of smoky blue flowers cover the plant in early spring. Great for dry banks. Z 7b

Ceanothus gloriosus ‘Emily Brown’/ a selection with more upright habit, mounding 3-4 ft. tall and a bit wider. Flowers a nice deep blue. Hardier than most blue ceanothus. Z 7b

Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis / CARMEL CREEPER / A mounding evergreen groundcover 2-3 ft. tall and 6-8 ft. wide. Rounded, 1 1/2 in. leaves with leathery texture and clusters of sky blue flowers in spring and lightly the rest of the year. Excellent bank cover. Z 8b

Ceanothus griseus ‘Santa Ana’ / Bigger than C. g. horizontalis, mounding 4-5 ft. tall, with slightly darker flowers. Z 8-9

Ceanothus integerrimus / DEER BRUSH / Widespread deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub to 6 ft. tall and wide. Found in sunny mountains from Washington to California, where it displays flowers from white through grayish lavender to cobalt blue in long plumes among oval, light green leaves. Z 7

Ceanothus ‘Joyce Coulter’ / A mostly horizontal evergreen, but eventually 4-6 ft. tall. Narrow, leathery, finely toothed leaves up to 1 1/2 in. long are smothered under a froth of deep sky blue flowers in spring. Excellent on banks. Z 8

Ceanothus ‘Julia Phelps’ / Much planted for its astonishing explosion of vivid blue flowers from red buds in spring. Tiny, wrinkled, 1/2 in. leaves densely cover a twiggy, 6 ft. evergreen shrub. Z 8

Ceanothus x mendocinensis / A natural hybrid of C. velutinus and C. thyrsiflorus, intermediate in its broadly oval, 1 1/2 in. leaves. Plumes of lilac blue flowers open in spring. Perhaps the hardiest large, blue flowering ceanothus, reaching 10 ft. tall and much wider. Little known but very nice. Z 7

Ceanothus ‘Puget Blue’ / Originating in the University of Washington Arboretum in the 1950′s, this has long been popular in England but scarce here. Tiny leaves in the mode of ‘Dark Star’ are covered by cobalt blue flowers from red buds in spring. Choice evergreen shrub 4-6 ft. tall and somewhat wider. Z 8

Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’ / Deservedly popular evergreen 10-15 ft. tall and wide. Rounded, 1 1/2 in. leaves, pale underneath, are interspersed with large clusters of deep sky blue flowers for much of the year, even into winter. Makes a fine patio tree, especially attractive to butterflies. Z 8

Ceanothus velutinus / TOBACCO BUSH / A large evergreen shrub of the Northwest, from B. C. to South Dakota and California. Its rounded, 2 in. leaves of glossy green are sticky from an aromatic wax. Large clusters of creamy white flowers make a good show in June. This is the mountain form, a neat, mounding plant 3-6 ft. tall and much wider. Handsome but finicky, best on sterile soils. Z 4

Ceanothus ‘Victoria’ ( C. ‘Skylark’) / Probably a selection of C. thyrsiflorus, growing 6 ft. tall and somewhat wider. Narrow, shiny, dark green leaves and generously scattered clusters of medium blue flowers in spring and intermittently after. A favorite for hardiness and adaptability. Z 7b

Cedar, Atlas – see Cedrus atlantica

Cedar, deerhorn – see Thujopsis

Cedar, deodar – see Cedrus deodara

Cedar, incense – see Calocedrus

Cedar of Lebanon – see Cedrus libani

Cedar, western red – see Thuja plicata

CEDRONELLA / Lamiaceae / One exotically aromatic perennial herb endemic (native only) to the Canary Islands.

Cedronella canariensis / CANARY BALM / A multi-stemmed plant 2-4 ft. tall with about the only compound leaves in the mint family, these with three pointed leaflets, smelling something of pine and patchouli. Small clusters of pinkish white flowers top the stems in summer. Long used medicinally, but delightful to smell any time. Sun, best with watering; Z 8-9

CEDRUS / CEDAR / Pinaceae / These majestic evergreen trees have seen a lot of history. From North Africa to the Himalayas, they make some of the worlds most storied forests. They are referred to as the ‘true’ cedars, only because they first bore the name. Unlike other trees called cedar, they bear needles, held in clusters of 10 or more, except singly on leading shoots; larches are similar this way, but deciduous. The heavy, egg-shaped cones of Cedrus sit upright on the branches and disintegrate there. These massive trees need more space than they are usually given, but wherever they grow, they dominate the scene beautifully. They want only sun and adequate drainage; all are drought hardy.

Cedrus atlantica f. glauca / BLUE ATLAS CEDAR / From the Atlas Mountains of North Africa, this is a massive, craggy pyramid of steely blue, one of the most impressive landscape statements one can make. Relatively short, sharp needles and stiffly upturned branches are distinctive. Z 6

Cedrus brevifolia / CYPRIAN CEDAR / Endemic to the island of Cypus, this is quite a rarity in gardens and likely better known to bonsai enthusiasts. Its blue-green needles are even shorter than those of C. atlantica, arranged on strongly horizontal branches. Can reach 60 ft. or more in time. Z 8

Cedrus deodara / DEODAR / A characteristic tree of the Himalayan forests from Afghanistan through India to Nepal, this is a grand skyline tree planted in mild climates around the world. Bright to grayish green needles about 1 1/2 in. long give a soft look to the gracefully spreading branches, which nod at the tip. Grows 100 ft. tall or more, with considerable spread. Z 7-8

Cedrus libani / CEDAR OF LEBANON / The tree of the Bible and a frequent landmark in great English estates. For years a narrow pyramid, later wide and massive, always with strikingly level branches. Needles are about 1 in. long, bright green to bluish, stiffer and more prickly than those of C. deodara. A seldom-planted heritage tree for later generations. Z 6

CELTIS / HACKBERRY / Ulmaceae / Plain and simple trees from around the world, rugged and good-looking almost anywhere. The hardy ones are deciduous trees of moderate size with oval, pointed leaves 2-4 in. long, inconspicuous flowers and sweet, pea sized fruits that seem to be made of brown sugar. Drought-hardy and easily grown in sun and almost any soil, they make good shade trees and are worth featuring for their rugged silhouette.

Celtis australis / LOTE TREE / A larger species from S. Europe, growing 50 ft. tall and as wide. Spreading branches carry tapered, glossy, handsomely veined leaves and burnt orange berries. Z 7

Celtis glabrata / A rare small tree of the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Balkans. A neat, rounded crown 30-40 ft. tall carries ovate to nearly diamond-shaped, deep green leaves that hold late. Small, sugary red-brown berries ripen in fall. Z 6

Celtis occidentalis / COMMON HACKBERRY/ A tree of the central and eastern US, growing 30 – 50 ft. or more with gnarled limbs covered in scaly gray to tan bark. Narrow, glossy, rough-textured leaves make a graceful, domed canopy, dotted in fall with red or purple fruits. Z 2

Celtis reticulata / WESTERN HACKBERRY / Native to dry regions from eastern Washington into the Southwest, this is a rounded tree 30-50 ft. tall. Unruly branches, arching and zig-zagging, manage to make an appealing framework for the sandpapery, bright green leaves. Golden fruits ripen as the foliage colors light amber in fall. Z 6

CEPHALOTAXUS / PLUM YEW / Cephalotaxaceae / Uncommon Asian conifers similar to yews but with much longer needles. Seeds are large, enclosed in a plum-like, inedible fruit. Plum yews are feature foliage plants, handsome close up or in the background. Best with some shade, they grow slowly and seldom become real trees in cultivation. They are fairly drought hardy.

Cephalotaxus harringtonia / JAPANESE PLUM YEW / Bold and handsome large shrub or small tree of rounded habit. Deep green to bluish needles 2 in. long in spreading fronds, dotted with round, purple-tan fruits. An impressive specimen. Z 7

Cephalotaxus harringtonia ‘Fastigiata’ / COW TAIL PINE / A narrowly upright form, with needles spiraled up long, vertical branches. Can reach 10 ft. tall, 3-4 ft. wide. Interesting architecture for part or full shade.

CERCIDIPHYLLUM / KATSURA TREE / Cercidiphyllaceae / Uniquely appealing deciduous trees from Japan and China. Their heart-shaped leaves resemble those of redbud (Cercis) but are in pairs. Leaves on older branches cluster on small pegs (spurs). Tiny, winged seeds are released from slender 1/2 in. pods. Katsuras often persist valiantly when planted in dry, sunny spots but need some shade and water for beautiful foliage and fall color.

Cercidiphyllum japonicum / The taller of the two species, to 70 ft. , beloved for its delicate branches lined with 2-3 in. hearts. These open early, in coppery and pinkish shades, mature to a bluish green and end the year in gold, cream, soft red or purple. The autumn leaves scent the air with brown sugar and cinnamon. Z 5

CERCIS / REDBUD / Fabaceae / Rounded leaves and tiny but profuse flowers in shades of pink easily identify these appealing small deciduous trees. The leaves are typically 2-3 in. wide, heart shaped at the base and notched or pointed at the tip. The 1/2 in. pea flowers sprout profusely from twigs, branches and even the trunk. Flat 2-3 in. seed pods fringe the branches in fall. Redbuds work beautifully as small shade trees, flowering specimens or street trees. They take sun and drought but may struggle in shallow hardpan soils.

Cercis canadensis ssp. mexicana / MEXICAN REDBUD / Small, dense tree to 20 ft. tall and wide. Thick, glossy, rounded 2-3 in. leaves color bronze before falling, or they may be semi-evergreen. Bright rose flowers open in spring as coppery leaves unfold. Excellent where hot and dry. Z 8

Cercis chinensis / CHINESE REDBUD / Bushy small tree to 15 ft. with heart-shaped 2-3 in. leaves. Bright rose flowers make a dazzling show in April-May. Soft yellow fall color. Z 7

Cercis occidentalis / WESTERN REDBUD / Native to dry, sunny hills from SW Oregon to Arizona. A large shrub or small tree 10-20 ft. tall with round, blue-green, 2-3 in. leaves that color orange and gold in fall. Vivid rosy magenta blooms are spectacular in spring and may make a small encore in fall. Western redbud and ceanothus bloom beautifully together. Z 7

Cercis siliquastrum / JUDAS TREE / From the Mediterranean, this is a larger tree, to 50 ft. tall and often flaring wider. Rounded 3-4 in. leaves open coppery orange as rose pink flowers line every twig and branch. Light yellow fall color. Z 7

CERCOCARPUS / MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY / Rosaceae / Several interesting evergreen and deciduous shrubs and small trees from dry mountains of the West. Tiny leaves on intricate branches make these tough, drought hardy plants great features in the dry border or wild garden. Minute flowers become showy clumps of feathery plumed seeds. Give them sun and good drainage.

Cercocarpus betuloides / BIRCHLEAF MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY / Widespread from Oregon to Mexico, this 10-20 ft. bushy tree carries toothed 1-2 in. leaves that are fuzzy below. Seed plumes create a silvery haze over the plant in fall, especially striking with the sun shining through it. Pale, gnarled branches show through the mostly evergreen foliage. Z 7

Cercocarpus betuloides var. blanchiae / ISLAND MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY / Native to the Channel Islands of California, this has much larger leaves, 1 1/2 – 3 in. long, bright green. Reaches 20 ft. tall with a flaring crown. Z 8

Cercocarpus traskiae / CATALINA MAHOGANY / The rarest of the Catalina endemics. Small evergreen tree or large shrub, with smooth bark, spreading form and rounded, light green, 1-2 in. leaves. The wispy seed clusters are especially showy. Z 8

CHAENOMELES / FLOWERING QUINCE / Rosaceae / Spiny deciduous shrubs whose prickliness is put up with because of their abundant flowering and rugged dependability. Glossy oval leaves open early and hold late. Flowers, grouped in the inner branches in white or shades of pink, red, orange, salmon or rose, give a long show in late winter or spring. Large, oblong fruits, rock-hard but edible in jellies, will scent a room if brought indoors. Tame these somewhat unruly shrubs by training on a fence or wall, where the flowers will show better. Sun or part shade; drought-hardy.

Chaenomeles x californica ‘California’ / A vigorous hybrid shrub growing 8 ft. by 8 ft. with a tangle of twiggy branches and glossy 2-3 in. leaves opening coppery gold. For many weeks in spring the inner branches are aflame with clusters of fiery red 1 1/2 in. flowers. Z 5

Chaenomeles cathayensis / CHINESE QUINCE / A rarely grown but worthy large shrub or small tree to 15 ft. tall, with a flaring crown of long branches. Leaves are 3-5 in. long, bright green. Flowers, 2 in. wide, white blushed pink, are fragrant if you can get your nose past the thorns. Yellow fruits the size of small grapefruits, ripen in fall. Z 5

CHAMAEBATTIARIA millefolium / FERN BUSH / Rosaceae / Distinctive semi-evergreen shrub of the Great Basin, growing 3-4 ft. tall. Minutely feathered, light green leaves cluster on its stiff, tan branches. In summer, spikes of small, creamy, buttercup-like flowers stand above the foliage, rewarding admirers with a honey fragrance. Sun; drainage; drought-hardy. Z 5

CHAMAECYPARIS / FALSE CYPRESS / Cupressaceae / Among the several species in this genus are an ever-growing multitude of cultivars in almost every conceivable shape, size, form and color. They are widely adaptable plants, succeeding in most soils and climates. The smaller varieties are fine as container or bonsai plants or in the rock garden. Small, rounded cones and flattened sprays of scaly foliage are features of the genus. Some cultivars have ‘juvenile’ foliage, which resembles tiny needles spreading out from the twig, rather then tight, overlapping scales.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana / PORT ORFORD CEDAR / Gracious sea-green conifer from a small area of southwest Oregon and northwest California, where it has declined due to logging and introduced pathogens. Outside its native range, it is planted worldwide. This stately, drooping tree to 150 ft. tall is the mother of hundreds of highly varied cultivars, some of which we offer below. Sun, drainage; Z 6 except as noted.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Barry’s Silver’ (‘Barry’s White’, ‘White Ice’)/ Silver and creamy green juvenile (needle-like) foliage makes this one of the brightest conifers. Grows 5 ft. in 10 years and needs partial shade. Z 8

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ’Blue Surprise’ / Small, tight cone of silver blue foliage in feathery sprays. A popular beauty that may reach 10 ft. tall after many years.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Broomhill Gold’ / Erect, flame-shaped shrub to 8-10 ft. tall, with vertical foliage sprays. Golden highlights over bright green give a radiance especially appreciated in winter. One of the best.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Chilworth Silver’ / Small, broad cone of silvery blue juvenile foliage, slow growing to 6-8 ft. tall. Very striking.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Columnaris’ / A tight pillar of silvery blue-green, to 30 ft. tall and 3-4 ft. wide. Beautiful garden architecture.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Elwoodii’ / A once popular, but still deserving, cultivar with deep blue green juvenile foliage forming a tight, narrowly oval or pyramidal tree 10-20 ft. tall. A garden landmark with a ‘just-sheared’ look.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Erecta Aurea’ / An open, broad, 10 ft. pyramid of chartreuse foliage highlighted yellow, in vertical sprays.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Erecta Viridis’ / Flame shaped landmark tree of closely cropped, Kelley green foliage in vertical sprays, reaching a picturesque 50 ft.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Golden Pot’ / Dwarf form with finely feathered lime green foliage generously highlighted bright yellow. Reaches 3-4 ft. by half as much across in five years or so, ultimately 20 ft and very narrow.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Kilmacurragh’ / Wonderful narrow form with tightly cropped outline of bright, Irish green foliage on dense, horizontal branches. Slowly reaches 20-30 ft. tall, 6 ft. wide, holding its shape against snow and storms.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Lemon Queen’ / Showy, bright yellow small tree of narrowly conical growth. Reaches 6-8 ft.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Lycopodioides’ / A curiously pleasing, wide pyramid of deep blue green foliage in curling threads. Slowly reaches 6-8 ft. by nearly as much.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Somerset’ / A fine-textured 6 ft. pyramid of blue-green juvenile foliage shading to creamy green at the tips. The elegant moonlit glow make this an exciting feature.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Stardust’ / Narrowly conical tree with blonde yellow foliage tinged bronze in winter. Slowly reaches 10-15 ft.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Versicolor’ / Large pyramidal shrub, eventually 10 ft. tall, with full, gracefully drooping sprays of blue green foliage intricately speckled and zoned with gold.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Wisselii’/ Unmistakable slender tree with stiff, narrow branches carrying dense, flattened and twisted sprays of deep blue green foliage. Eventually reaches 50 ft.

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ( now Xanthocyparis n. )/ ALASKA YELLOW CEDAR / Named for the color of its extremely durable wood, this is a dramatically weeping tree of Northwest mountains. Drooping curtains of deep blue-green foliage hang from arching and sweeping branches. A giant in the wild but 40-70 ft. tall in cultivation. Best in sun and moist soil, but quite drought-hardy. Z 6

Chamaecyparis obtusa / HINOKI CYPRESS / Wild trees in Japan can reach over 100 ft. tall, with dense, flattened sprays of dark green foliage marked with white underneath between the scales. The bark is cinnamon and gray. Beautiful just as it is, the hinoki has given rise to scores of cultivars, mostly small to tiny. Sun or part shade; well-drained soil. Z 5

Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea / Small, slow-growing tree to 15 ft. in 20 years. Dense, dark foliage sprays spread from arching branches and droop a bit at the tip. Elegant feature or screen.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Kosteri’ / Compact form slowly making a wide 3-4 ft. pyramid of flattened, deep green sprays tinged bronze in winter unless shaded.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Lutea Nova’ / Slow growing, broadly conical tree to 15 ft. tall, half as wide. Silvery yellow shading on bright green, gracefully nodding foliage sprays.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Mariesii’ / Loosely conical shrub to 8 ft. tall and about as wide. Tight, curled tufts of deep green foliage are finely speckled and patterned creamy yellow. Remarkable color and texture, glowing even in dim light.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana’ / Very dwarf, compact form, to 3-4 ft. tall and about as wide after many years. Congested branches carry dense, flattened sprays of dark green foliage at various artful angles. Perfect for cool rock garden or container.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Pygmaea’ / One of the smallest, very slowly making a beautifully textured mound 2-3 ft. tall and 4-5 ft. wide. Superb feature in a cool rock garden, partly shaded. May take on bronze tones in winter.

Chamaecyparis pisifera / SAWARA CYPRESS / Tall, lacy tree to 70ft. or more, with fine-textured, drooping sprays of bright green foliage, pale on the reverse. Bark orange brown and shredding vertically. An important timber tree in its native Japan, and widely planted in landscapes around the world, especially in its many selected forms. Sun; best where moist, but rather drought-hardy. Z 6

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Boulevard’ / A long-admired and distinct small tree 10-15 ft. tall. Slowly forms a billowy pyramid of thick, blue-green juvenile foliage. Best where bright but not too dry.

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera’ / THREAD CYPRESS / A large shrub or small tree popular for its shaggy, stringy, bright green foliage drooping from spreading branches. Gumdrop-shaped, to 8-15 ft. tall and 8 ft. wide, with orange brown bark. Always a welcome change in texture.

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Nana’ / Wide, slow-growing dome of deep blue-green foliage in feathery tufts. Beautiful texture for a cool rock garden. Reaches 3-4 ft. tall and somewhat wider after 10-20 years.

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Snow’ / Remarkably bright puff of billowy juvenile foliage in pale blue green fading to white at the tips. A fat 2-3 ft. cloud that needs part shade to avoid sunburn.

Chamaecyparis taiwanensis / TAIWAN CYPRESS / Rarely grown small tree from Taiwan, related to C. obtusa, with similarly flattened branchlets, smaller cones, bright green foliage. To 100 ft. or more in the wild, smaller and slow growing in cultivation. Sun or part shade, fairly drought hardy. Z 8

Chamaecyparis thyoides / ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR / Narrowly pyramidal tree 20-40 ft. tall in gardens, much taller in the wilds of Atlantic Coast swamps. Very fine, feathery foliage in shades of light green to blue green, often blushing purple in winter. Good in average soil, but especially useful in wet spots. Z 4

CHAMAEROPS humilis / MEDITERRANEAN FAN PALM / Arecaeae / Dotting the dry slopes around the Mediterranean, this is the northernmost palm. It goes even farther north in gardens, to be seen in Britain and the Pacific Northwest. Bright green fans 2 ft. wide, silvery below, on long, spiny stalks make 4-5 ft. wide crowns. These are usually several of these per plant, slowly rising atop fibrous brown trunks to heights of 6-10 ft. Fine in a large tub, or in a sunny, warm spot with good drainage. Feed and water generously until August to speed growth. Z 8b

Chamaerops humilis var. cerifera / From the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, home of the blue Atlas cedar, comes this blue-leaved beauty. Not only are the leaves a striking chalky blue, but the plant is usually hardier than the green form.

Chaste tree – see Vitex

Checker mallow – see Sidalcea

Cheiranthus linifolius ‘Variegatus’ – see Erysimum linifolium ‘Variegatum’

CHILOPSIS linearis / DESERT WILLOW / Bignoniaceae / Delicate deciduous tree of the Southwest with very slender, willowy, light green leaves and beautiful, fragrant, ruffly trumpets 2 in. long in shades of pink and lavender, marked yellow in the throat. Often only a bushy 10 ft. tall, but sometimes to 30 ft., with a narrow, see-through crown. Found along streams and washes in the desert, but in cooler areas it is drought hardy. Z 8

CHIMONANTHUS / WINTER SWEET / Calycanthaceae / A few species of evergreen and deciduous Chinese shrubs prized for their fragrant winter flowers. The species below is best known, though still scarce in nurseries.

Chimonanthus praecox / One of the most glorious floral fragrances -imagine a bowl of fresh fruit garnished with sweet peas and gardenias- wafts from the 3/4 in. ivory bells npdding from the bare branches of this shrub from December to March. Stiffly upright and spreading, to 8 ft. tall and wide, it goes on to produce narrow, pointed 4-6 in. leaves that color yellow in fall. Deserves a fairly sunny spot close to where you come and go in winter, so you can enjoy the perfume. Fairly drought hardy; Z 7

CHIONANTHUS / FRINGE TREE / Oleaceae / Evergreen and deciduous shrubs and small trees from around the world. Most are tropical and evergreen; the two below are deciduous and hardy. All have spidery flowers in airy clouds and olive-like fruits. They are best in a moist soil.

Chionanthus retusus / CHINESE FRINGE TREE / An attractive and rather rugged small tree to 20 ft. tall with wider spread. Oval, dark green to blue-green leaves 4-8 in. long, turn greenish yellow in fall. Fluffy clusters of white flowers put on a big summer show, especially in hot climates. Powdery blue berries make a fall display, hanging on the bare branches. A neat, fairly trouble free small shade tree. Z 5b

Chionanthus virginicus / AMERICAN FRINGE TREE / Typically a wide shrub, sometimes a tree to 15 ft. tall. Broadly oval leaves up to 8 in. long, deep matte green, give a commanding texture. Spidery white flowers in huge, airy clusters billow from the branches in May or June, followed by oval, blue 1/2 in. fruits. A choice garden subject, nicest in partial shade. Z 4

CHIONOCHLOA / Poaceae / Several clumping evergreen grasses from New Zealand, scarce in gardens but very nice. Narrow blades form a rounded tussock, with graceful seed clusters dangling high above. They need sun and good drainage and are drought-hardy. Z 8

Chionochloa conspicua / HUNAGAMOHO GRASS / Soft 18 in. clumps of slender, bright green leaves and pale, bead-like seeds in drooping streamers along arching 4 ft. stems. The misty cloud of seed clusters is spectacular when backlit by the sun.

CHOISYA / Rutaceae / Several aromatic evergreen shrubs of the American Southwest and Mexico, valued for foliage and fragrant white flowers. Leaves are fan-like, divided into narrow leaflets. Though related to citrus, they produce only dry seed capsules, but they are attractive and adaptable, drought-hardy shrubs for mild climates.

Choisya x dewitteana ‘Aztec Pearl’ / HYBRID MEXICAN ORANGE / A beautiful and vigorous shrub 4 ft. tall and much wider, a cross of C. ternata and C. dumosa. Spidery, bright green leaves, with usually 5 narrow leaflets, give an intricate texture. Large clusters of 1 in. white flowers make a big show for many weeks. Z 8

Choisya ternata / MEXICAN ORANGE / Rounded shrub to 6 ft. tall and wide, the same bright green from head to toe. Fan shaped leaves with three narrowly oval leaflets, are 3-4 in. wide. White flowers open in spring and often again in fall, even through mild winters. Well proven landscape favorite, for sun or light shade. Z 8

Choisya ternata ‘Sundance’ / Leaves suffused sunny yellow, especially bright in full light. A color accent with punch.

Chokeberry – see Aronia

Chrysanthemum nipponicum – see Nipponanthemum nipponicum

CINNAMOMUM / Lauraceae / Aromatic evergreen trees of tropical and subtropical regions around the world. All have glossy, fragrant leaves with three lengthwise ribs, tiny green flowers and small round fruits. Cinnamon is made from the bark of several tropical species. The trees prefer a moist soil, but those here are drought-hardy.

Cinnamomum camphora / CAMPHOR TREE / Rounded tree to 50 ft. tall, spreading wider. Shiny, long-pointed 2-3 in. leaves, scented of camphor, emerge coppery red or pink. Pea-sized blue-black fruits ripen in fall. A favorite street and park tree in California; sometimes successful in warmest Northwest gardens. Z 9

Cinnamomum glanduliferum / NEPAL CAMPHOR TREE /A rare tree from the Himalayas, among the hardiest of the genus. Thick, glossy, sweetly aromatic, 4- in. leaves open coppery; berries ripen dark blue. A rounded 40-60 ft. tree enduring frost to 12 F. Z 8b

CISSUS / GRAPE IVY / Vitaceae / Another ‘houseplant’ genus with one or two members that are hardier. Leaves are divided fan-wise into several toothed leaflets. Tiny flowers lead to small grape-like fruits. Most species are evergreen twiners and need a trellis or another shrub to climb on.

Cissus striata / IVY OF PARAGUAY / Also from Chile, this charming climber makes a choice bank cover in dappled shade. Dark, shiny 2 in. leaves, divided like snowflakes, line reddish runners. Blue-purple fruits seldom seen. Rare, drought-hardy and fast. Z 8

CISTUS / ROCKROSE / Cistaceae / Aromatic evergreen shrubs of sunny Mediterranean hillsides. Their scents come not from their abundant pink, rose or white flowers but from their thick leaves, in various tones of green or gray, which fill the garden with resinous, herbal perfumes. The rockroses are indispensable plants for low-water landscapes on the west coast. Fast growing on even poor soil, they need only a mild, dry-summer climate, sun and good drainage. A light trimming after bloom will keep them full and attractive. Unless noted otherwise, all are Z 8.

Cistus x argenteus ‘Silver Pink’ / An old favorite, with small flowers in soft pink and velvety gray foliage. Low and sprawling, to 18 in. high and twice as wide.

Cistus ‘Bennett’s White’ / A superb newer cultivar with smooth, narrow, leaves with pale reverse on a dense, 3 ft. shrub. Spectacular white flowers nearly 4 in. wide, with frilled, overlapping petals and orange center open through the summer. Z 8

Cistus  ladanifer ‘Blanche’ / A very nice cultivar, with 3-4 in. , tapered leaves of deep green, wavy on the edges. White, 3 in. wide flowers with broad, slightly overlapping petals, open in late spring and summer. Upright, to 4 ft. tall and wide.

Cistus x corbariensis – see Cistus x hybridus

Cistus creticus / Upright, rounded shrub to 4 ft. tall, with small, crinkly leaves in gray velvet. Soft magenta flowers may open any day of the year, but mainly in the warmer months.

Cistus  x cyprius v. ellipticus ‘Elma’ / A hybrid of C. laurifolius, with equally sticky leaves, only narrower. White 3 in. flowers open in late spring on a broad, 5 ft. shrub.

Cistus x hybridus ( C. x corbariensis) / WHITE ROCKROSE / Planted everywhere out here because it is one of the hardiest, grows fast, looks good and need almost nothing. Crinkly olive green leaves make a dense dome 4 ft. tall and somewhat wider. White 2 in. flowers smother the plant in late spring.

Cistus  ladanifer ‘Blanche’ / A very nice cultivar, with 3-4 in. , tapered leaves of deep green, wavy on the edges. White, 3 in. wide flowers with broad, slightly overlapping petals, open in late spring and summer. Upright, to 4 ft. tall and wide.

Cistus laurifolius / LAUREL ROCKROSE / About the hardiest species. Stiffly upright, to 8 ft. tall, eventually with a trunk of shaggy cinnamon bark. Thick 3-4 in. leaves of sticky, dark, gray green, pale underneath, with a sweet, piney fragrance, and 3-4 in. white flowers in late spring. Z 7

Cistus laurifolius ssp. atlanticus / ATLAS ROCKROSE / From the Atlas Mountains of North Africa, this is smaller than the species in all ways, to 3 ft. tall, with 2 in. leaves and flowers, and the same great fragrance.

Cistus x pulverulentus ‘Sunset’ / Popular for its flowers in screaming magenta against velvety gray green foliage. An excellent groundcover, 12-18 in. high and twice as wide. Light bloom nearly all year.

Cistus x purpureus / ORCHID ROCKROSE / Big flowers in deep carmine pink, marked maroon at the center, open in early summer on a rounded 4 ft. plant with narrow, gray green leaves. One of the showiest and most widely planted.

Cistus salviifolius / SAGELEAVED ROCKROSE / A broad dome of rounded, 1 in. leaves in grayish green, covered in small white flowers in late spring. Rather hardy and excellent for dry banks, growing 3-4 ft. tall and twice as wide.

Cistus salviifolius ‘Prostratus’ / A low form, to 18 in. high and 3-4 ft. wide, with even smaller leaves.

Cistus x skanbergii / A 3-4 ft. rounded shrub of small, slender, gray leaves and charming small flowers in apple-blossom pink and white. Blooming starts in spring, carries lightly through summer.

CITRUS / Rutaceae / A small genus of subtropical trees containing some of the world’s most important fruits. These are mostly tender for us. Glossy areomatic leaves, often on spiny branches, and extravagantly perfumed flowers which precede the familiar fruit, are common chariteristics. Most citrus demand rich, well drianed soil; C. trifoliata is more adapatble and is a common root stock for this reason

Citrus trifoliata (Poncirus t.) / HARDY ORANGE / Spiny deciduous relative of the orange, making a twiggy tree to 15 ft. tall. Small trifoliate leaves barely cover its green branches, which are decorated with fragrant white flowers in spring and golf ball sized orange fruits in fall. The dry, aromatic oranges are more decorative than edible, but make a surprising display in areas too cold for citrus. Sun, drought hardy. Z 6

CLERODENDRUM / GLORYBOWER / Verbenaceae / Several hundred mostly tropical plants. Only a few are hardy further north, including the one below.

Clerodendrum trichotomum / HARLEQUIN GLORYBOWER / A small Asian tree with surprising colors and aromas. The triangular to heart-shaped 4-6 in. leaves smell of peanut butter when crushed. In summer, hanging clusters of white flowers , each held in a red calyx, scent the garden with rich perfume. These lead to the grand finale, as each rosy calyx becomes a star, holding a pea-sized berry in turquoise blue. These jewels decorate the tree even after leaf drop. Sun or part shade; drought-hardy when established. Nice small shade tree for the patio in Z 8, a grow-back shrub to Z 5.

CLETHRA / Clethraceae / Evergreen and deciduous shrubs and trees from warm places in Asia, Central America, the southeast US and Madeira. Narrow leaves are typical, often grouped at branch ends. Small bell-shaped or urn-shaped flowers, usually white and fragrant, open in long clusters late in summer. Clethras are woodland plants, best with part shade and moist, well-drained soil.

Clethra acuminata / MOUNTAIN SWEET PEPPER / A deciduous shrub or small tree to 8 ft. or more, from the se US. Narrow, tapered, deep green leaves are the backdrop to long, fuzzy spikes of fragrant, creamy white flowers in summer. Good yellow fall color. Best in part shade, moist soil. z6

Clethra alnifolia / SWEET PEPPER BUSH / Narrow, serrated, deep green leaves color gold and orange in fall. The 6 in. spikes of frothy white, fragrant flowers open in summer. Bushy, erect shrub to 8-12 ft., a nice, easily grown contribution to the garden from the eastern US. Part shade, fairly drought hardy. Z 3

Clethra barbinervis / WHITE ALDER / A large, somewhat exotic deciduous shrub to 10 ft tall with a wide crown. Handsome patterns of clustered narrow leaves give rich fall color Gracefully drooping spikes of fragrant white flowers open in late summer. Attractive peeling bark on older plants. Part or full shade, fairly drought hardy. Z 5

CLEYERA / Theaceae / A small genus of evergreen shrubs and trees from warm parts of Asia and the Americas. The one below is popular in Z 8 and up.

Cleyera japonica/ JAPANESE CLEYERA / Highly polished, camellia-like foliage is the attraction of this 6-12 ft. shrub. Oval 3-4 in. leaves open in coppery and reddish tones. Tiny white, fragrant flowers lead to black berries. Beautiful and useful in shady spots; drought-hardy once established.

Clover, elk – see Aralia californica

Coffeeberry – see Rhamnus

Coffee tree, Kentucky – see Gymnocladus dioicus

Colewort – see Crambe

Columbine – see Aquilegia

COMAROSTAPHYLIS / Ericaceae / These relatives of the madrones and manzanitas are sprinkled along the coastal hills and mountains from S. California to Panama. Glossy evergreen leaves, small, urn-shaped flowers, red or black berries and showy bark make them nice garden plants in Z 8b and up.

Comarostaphylis diversifolia / SUMMER HOLLY / From the coast of S. California and Mexico, this is a shrub or tree to 15 ft. tall. Gnarled branches covered in shreddy gray bark hold clumps of thick, glossy, toothed, 2-3 in. leaves. Long spikes of white flowers become drooping chains of bright red berries by late summer. Sun, good drainage, shelter from cold wind.

Coneflower – see Rudbeckia

COPROSMA / Rubiaceae / A large genus of evergreen shrubs and trees from the tropical Pacific and New Zealand. Shiny leaves, often colored or variegated in the cultivars, colorful berries and adaptability are their best features. The coprosmas below need sun or light shade and shelter from cold winds. They are drought hardy; the hardy ones we offer are good to Z 8.

Coprosma ‘Black Cloud’ / Deep maroon to nearly black, 1 in. leaves on a low, layered mound to 2 ft. tall. Exciting with coppery and orange sedges, blue grasses, anything gray.

Coprosma ’Chocolate Soldier’ / Oval, 3/4 in. leaves, glossy, wavy and tinted of strong coffee, give a lurid glitter to the spreading branches of this 4 ft. shrub. Playful color possibilities.

Coral bells – see Heuchera

Coralberry – see Symphoricarpos

Corcolen – see Azara integrifolia

CORDYLINE / Asparagaceae / This group of spear-leaved shrubs and trees comes from the eastern Pacific. They are mostly tropical; several are popular houseplants. A few decorate mild Northwest gardens where they create a bit of subtropical fun. Long, slender leaves cluster atop the stem or branches. Tiny flowers in huge clusters lead to pea-sized berries.

Cordyline australis / CABBAGE TREE / Wherever summers are cool and winters fairly frost-proof, this lanky, mop-headed New Zealander marks the skyline with its exotic silhouette. Narrow 2-3 ft. swords make rounded clusters atop each branch of this 20-30 ft. tree. Young, unbranched plants live on in containers for years or as ‘temporary’ accents that grow on to join the permanent landscaping. Temperatures of 15 F take most specimens to the ground; injured plants nearly always resprout from the base or along the trunk. Sun or part shade; drought-hardy but faster with water; Z 8b

Corktree – see Euonymus phellomanus

CORNUS / DOGWOOD / Cornaceae /Flowers, fruit, fall foliage and colorful twigs make this one of the most popular ornamental genera. A few species have the showy dogwood flowers with large petals (technically ‘bracts’) circling a knob of tiny true flowers. These dogwwods, both evergreen and deciduous , are superb feature trees for fairly sunny, well drained spots. Other species, grown mostly for their colorful winter twigs, are shrubs that prefer wet soil, but are usually happy in average conditions. They need to be cut back nearly to the ground in late winter so they will sprout lots of young, colorful branches. Dogwoods leaves are typically held in pairs (‘opposite’) and usually have major veins curving up toward the tip.

Cornus alba / SIBERIAN DOGWOOD / The east Asian counterpart to our redtwig dogwood. Usually a lower and wider plant, to 5-6 ft. tall and twice as wide. Puffy clusters of white flowers in spring lead to pea-sized white or bluish berries, which ripen against red to gold autumn leaves. Z 2

Cornus alba ‘Elegantissima’ / Red twigged shrub lighting up the garden with its pale green leaves edged with white. One of the most effective variegated shrubs, strikingly colorful with or without leaves.

Cornus alba ‘Gouchaultii’ / MOTTLED TARTARIAN DOGWOOD / Colorful foliage mottled yellow, pink, red and creamy white on red branches. Combines happily with almost anything. Moderate growth to 5 ft. tall and somewhat wider.

Cornus alba ‘Kesselringii’ / Spreading shrub to 3-4 ft. tall with bright green foliage offset by thick branches of deepest burgundy. Fascinatingly lurid in winter.

Cornus alternifolia / PAGODA DOGWOOD / From eastern North America, a beautiful small tree 10-20 ft. tall. Its elegantly tiered branches and alternate (not paired) leaves recall C. controversa, its Asian relation. Tiny white flowers in showy clusters layer the branches in late spring, followers by blue-black berries. After a blaze of purple and red fall color, the leaves drop to reveal a handsome structure. Sun or part shade; best with water; Z 3

Cornus alternifolia ‘Argentea’ / VARIEGATED PAGODA DOGWOOD / Rare ethereal beauty for a feature spot. Small tree to 15 ft., displaying layered clouds of small, light green leaves generously edged white on threadlike twigs. Place it in part shade, spotlighted against dark woodland edge. Best with water but surprisingly adaptable.

Cornus amomum / SILKY DOGWOOD / A shrub of the eastern US, growing 10 ft. tall and spreading into thickets. Slender purplish twigs carry long-pointed leaves that color red in fall. White flowers in frothy clusters become showy azure blue berries. Sun, moist soil. Z 4

Cornus australis / From southeast Europe and Asia Minor, this attractive large shrub holds its roundish, dark green, deeply veined leaves into December. White flowers in frothy clusters become shiny black berries. Sun, moist or average soil; Z 6

Cornus canadensis (C. x unalaschensis) / BUNCHBERRY / A charming carpet of small, roundish, beautifully veined leaves studded in summer with 1 1/2 in. wide blooms with four white petals (‘bracts’). Fall brings orange red berries and reddish tints to the foliage, which is typically evergreen in gardens here. From mountain forests of North America, it wants at least part shade and a layer of coarse humus. Drought hardy but better with some watering. Z 2

Cornus capitata / EVERGREEN DOGWOOD / Lovely small evergreen tree to 20 ft. tall and about as wide. Its beautifully wandering branches carry tiers of light, grayish green leaves. Flowers with showy creamy yellow bracts open in late spring and and last several weeks, ending up in shades of pink. The fruits, often larger than golf balls, ripen pinkish red in fall. Worthy of a special spot, bright but sheltered from cold winds. Our plants, raised from local seed, are extra hardy and drought-tolerant; Z 8.

Cornus controversa / TABLE DOGWOOD / Worth planting for its striking form alone, this uncommon Chinese tree gets its name from the amazingly long, horizontal branches. These layers are frosted with billows of creamy flower clusters in late spring, followed by blue-black berries and soft autumn tints. Like only C. alternifolia, this dogwood holds its slender leaves singly, rather than by twos. Grows 25-40 ft. tall. Sun, best where moist; Z 5

Cornus coreana / KOREAN DOGWOOD / Large deciduous shrub or tree to 30 ft. or more, with smooth purplish brown twigs in graceful tiers. Narrow, bright green leaves color purple and red in fall. Tiny white flowers in snowy clusters in June, followed by blue-black berries. Rare but worthy ornamental for sun and damp soil. Z 6

Cornus kousa / KOUSA DOGWOOD / A superb ornamental, lovely in almost every way. Deeply veined, long-pointed leaves color in oranges, reds and purples in fall as 1 in. raspberry red fruits ripen. Flowers, with four ‘petals’, layer the tiered branches like snow, gradually aging to pink in a long late spring show. Grows 20-30 ft. tall, flaring widely, and develops a decorative, flaking bark. From China, Korea and Japan. Sun or part shade; fairly drought hardy; Z 5

Cornus mas / CORNELIAN CHERRY / Small, bushy tree reaching 15 ft. tall and wide. Along its slender green twigs open puffs of yellow flowers at the end of winter. Oval leaves follow, turning soft yellow and red in fall as deep red 3/4 in. edible fruits (acquired taste) ripen. Nice drought hardy specimen for sun or part shade; Z 5

Cornus nuttallii / PACIFIC DOGWOOD / Our glorious native, a tree 50-80 ft. tall with tiered branches building a narrowly oval crown. Sumptuous large, creamy blooms are showy from late March into May and often again in late summer. Buttons of orange red seeds chime in with soft red, yellow, orange and purple fall foliage. Unfortunately a fussy tree, often troubled by anthracnose, but worth every effort to establish. Give it sun at the top, evergreen shrubs to shade the roots, excellent drainage and no summer water. Z 7

Cornus officinalis / JAPANESE CORNEL / An east Asian counterpart of C. mas, larger in all its parts and showing curls of translucent red bark on its smaller branches. Yellow flowers puffs make a good show in late winter. A fine and rare ornamental. Sun or part shade; drought-hardy; Z 6

Cornus pumila / DWARF REDTIP DOGWOOD / A neat, shrubby dogwood, typically 2-3 ft. tall and twice as wide. Dark, deeply veined leaves emerge red; the twigs are tipped with colorful unfolding leaves all summer. Foliage holds green into winter here. White flower clusters lead to black fruit. Though most dogwoods are relished by deer, this dogwood bucks the trend in being unpalatable to them. Sun; best where moist; Z 5

Cornus sanguinea / COMMON DOGWOOD / A large shrub native over most of Europe and west Asia. Roundish, pointed leaves, handsomely and deeply veined, clothe a loosely rounded plant 10-20 ft. tall. Puffy clusters of creamy flowers lead to black berries. Fall color can be tepid yellow to vibrant red and purple. Sun; moisture loving but drought-hardy. Z 5

Cornus sanguinea ‘Midwinter Fire’ / A sensational plant giving some of the brightest winter fireworks ever. The bare twigs, creamy yellow and orange, are tipped with fiery red. A smaller plant, to 6 ft. tall and wide.

Cornus sericea (C. stolonifera) / REDTWIG DOGWOOD / An abundant and widespread large, thicket-forming North American shrub, crowding streamsides, ditches and moist woodland edges from coast to coast. Colorful twigs are its main decorative feature, typically bright red in winter. Long oval leaves, pale underneath, color red, yellow or purple in fall. White flower clusters become pearly berries that may be stained inky blue. Can reach 10-20 ft. or more, but if cut to stimulate colorful new twigs will stay about 6 ft. tall. Sun, moist or average soil; Z 2

Cornus sericea ‘Flaviramea’ / YELLOW-TWIG DOGWOOD / Twigs and branches yellowish lime green. Showy by itself and very nice combined with red forms.

Cornus sericea ‘Kelseyi’ / KELSEY DWARF DOGWOOD / Low and mounding plant 2-3 ft. high and much wider. Fine, upturned twigs make a cloud of glowing red in winter. Small leaves yellowish in fall. Wonderful in large sweeps.

Cornus sericea ssp. occidentalis / WESTERN REDTWIG / This variety largely replaces the species west of the Rockies. A bigger plant, sometimes over 30 ft. tall in our area, with deeper red to purplish twigs. Z 7

Cornus sericea ssp. occidentalis ‘Sunshine’ / An exciting cultivar, found in southwest Washington in the 1950′s but still uncommon. Green twigs carry lime green leaves variably shaded and marked with lemon yellow. Grows to 10 ft. if not trimmed.
Cornus stolonifera Sunshine

Cornus stolonifera- see Cornus sericea


Cornus x unalaschensis – see Cornus canadensis

Cornus wilsoniana / WILSON’S DOGWOOD / A rare but worthy Chinese tree with a narrow crown to 25-40 ft. tall, usually considered deciduous but mostly evergreen here. Slender, long pointed, bright green leaves, clusters of tiny white flowers and black berries cover its slender, spreading branches. Sun or part shade; fairly drought hardy; Z 6

COROKIA / COROKIA / Cornaceae (or Argophyllaceae) / Several evergreen shrubs from New Zealand, fascinating for their intricately tangled branches. Tiny leaves allow this wiry structure to show through. Little yellow flowers and orange berries add sprinkles of seasonal color. All are drought-hardy, in sun and good drainage.

Corokia cotoneaster / WIRE NETTING BUSH / Narrowly upright in a curling, zigzag way, to 4-6 ft. tall. Twisting silvery twigs carry a scattering of round, 1/3 in. silver-backed leaves. Delightful plant sculpture calling for careful placement. Z 8

Corontillo – see Escallonia pulverulenta

CORREA / AUSTRALIAN FUCHSIA / Rutaceae / These delightful evergreen shrubs are related to citrus, but do have some of the charm of the fuchsias with their usually pendant flowers. These appear nearly all year in white, cream, green and many shades of pink, rose, red and orange. Below Z 9, correas need a sunny, sheltered, well drained spot or a container that can be protected. They are drought-hardy.

Correa alba / Taller than most, with round 1 in. gray green leaves backed in white velvet, and starry white, 1/2 in. flowers facing up on an upright shrub 3-4 ft. tall and at least as wide. Relatively hardy, to Z 8b

Correa x backhousiana / A fairly hardy C. alba hybrid with similar round leaves backed in fawn felt. Elegant slender bells of creamy green hang from the branches most of the year. An open shrub to 4 ft. by 4 ft. Z 8b

Correa ‘Dusky Bells’ / Derived from C. pulchella, and even lower, to 18 in. tall and 3 ft. wide or more. Oval 1 in. leaves and lovely tubular flowers in deep sunset pink. Z 8-9

Correa pulchella / A low, spreading shrub 2 ft. tall and twice as wide. Narrowly oval 1 in. leaves of shiny green partly hide the sweet, rosy red 3/4 in. flowers dangling under the branches. Z 8-9

CORYLOPSIS / WINTER HAZEL / Hamamelidaceae / Exceptionally decorative deciduous shrubs sometimes confused with witch hazels (Hamamelis). Instead of the spidery flowers of that genus, the corylopsis display clusters of tiny, bonnet-shaped flowers in early spring. Rounded, toothed leaves on a beautiful filigree of slender twigs turn gold to purplish in fall. Winter hazels are best in part shade, where they are fairly drought hardy.

Corylopsis sinensis / CHINESE WINTER HAZEL / A larger species, to 10 ft. with nearly equal spread. Lemon-scented, pale yellow flowers hang in 2-3 in. clusters in March. Broadly oval 3-4 in. leaves create an open crown of meandering branches. Z 6

Corylopsis spicata / SPIKE WINTER HAZEL / Fragrant yellow flowers in dense, upright, 2 in. spikes in early spring are followed by rounded, 2-3 in. leaves on interlacing branches. A rounded shrub to 6-8 ft. tall and at least as wide. From Japan. Z 5

CORYLUS / HAZEL, FILBERT / Betulaceae /Important nut-producing trees of the temperate zone, succeeding in climates too cool for most nuts. Their rounded leaves, lithe, arching branches and showy winter flower tassels make them still more worth planting. Further, they are easy to grow in any reasonably bright, well drained spot.

Corylus cornuta var. californica / WESTERN HAZELNUT / Our native hazel out here, told from cultivated European ones by the smaller leaves (typically 2-4 in. wide), later flower tassels (February) and smaller nuts, with the husk enclosing the nut and extending in a snout beyond it. Generally a many-stemmed shrub, it can reach 30 ft. tall and much wider. Best production of its delicious nuts is in sun. Z 6

COTINUS / SMOKE BUSH / Anacardiaceae / Two well-distingushed deciduous trees not quite like anything else. Round to broadly oval leaves and smoky, cloud-like seed clusters are their trademarks. Rich fall color and sturdy constitution add considerably to their impressive resumes.

Cotinus coggygria ‘Royal Purple’ / A favorite cultivar for its deep burgundy leaves 2-3 in. long, often edged in rosy red, coloring vibrant red and orange in fall. Pinkish beige clouds carry the tiny seeds in late summer and fall. Irregularly rounded small tree to 15 ft. tall and nearly as wide, but easily shaped. Sun; drought-hardy; Z 4

COTONEASTER / Rosaceae / These many and varied plants play many roles in the landscape: screening and espalier, durable groundcovers, wall covers, even elegant small trees. Their leaves range from small to very small; most of ours are evergreen. Tiny white or pinkish flowers are charming up close. Fruits, attractive to birds, tend to be red or orange, sometimes black, purple or yellow, and may hold through winter. Cotoneasters actually prefer a thin, well-drained soil and are very drought hardy.

Cotoneaster atropurpureus ‘Variegatus’ / VARIEGATED ROCKSPRAY / Low and spreading deciduous shrub, 2 ft. tall and twice as wide, with a fish-bone pattern of branches lined in tiny round leaves. These are shiny gray green edged in white, tinted pink in fall. Lots of excitement when combined with gray or purple leaved plants. Z 4

Cotoneaster cashmiriensis / Rare and charming groundcover, with dense sprays of tiny, rounded, evergreen leaves in deep gray green, spreading in ripples over slopes and rocks. Deep red berries summer-winter. Stays under 12 in. tall. Z 7

Cotoneaster conspicuus / Rather gnarled evergreen carrying tiny, narrow, deep green leaves on arching branches, eventually mounding to 18 in. high. Bright red berries. Nice up-close rock garden specimen or even bonsai. Z 6

Cotoneaster conspicuus -tiny leaves / our selection with even smaller leaves, about 1/8 in. long.

Cotoneaster dammeri / BEARBERRY COTONEASTER / Variable, prostrate shrub with small, oval leaves and orange berries on long runners. There are many hybrids of this; those below are forms of the species. Z 5

Cotoneaster dammeri ‘Major’ / Often confused with kinnikinnik, with its oval leaves 1/2 – 1 in. long on trailing stems. Fine, much used groundcover, excellent on slopes and over walls.

Cotoneaster franchettii / Common but so nice, with its 6 ft. fountain of arching branches carrying rounded 1 in. leaves of sage green and silver. Large orange berries make a good fall show. Evergreen, but with some leaves coloring and dropping through winter. Z 8

Cotoneaster lacteus / PARNEY COTONEASTER / A large, elegant evergreen shrub or tree to 12 ft. tall, with spreading layers of relatively large, 2-3 in. oval leaves in deep gray green, silvery below. Generous clusters of coral red berries make a big display fall and winter. Fine espalier, large bank cover, screen or small tree. Z 8

Cotoneaster lidjiangensis (C. buxifolius) / BOXLEAVED COTONEASTER / Very nice, low evergreen shrub from N. India, to 3-4 ft. tall and twice as wide. Tiny, round, gray-green to bluish leaves in neat, flattened sprays are a perfect backdrop for the myriad red berries. Beautiful in rock garden or dry slope. Z 7

Cotoneaster ‘Lowfast’ / Common, but for good reason. Arching and trailing branches carry tiny leaves and many orange-red berries as they carpet the ground. Some branches leap above the carpet, but most of the plant is nearly prostrate. Fine evergreen for sunny banks. Z 6

Cotoneaster morrisonensis / A rare relative of C. dammeri from Taiwan. Oval, 1/2 in. leaves in shiny green cover low, interlacing branches to make a beautiful 12 in. deep groundcover. Bright red orange berries. Z 7

Cotoneaster pluriflorus (Cotoneaster permutatus) / A rare deciduous shrub from the Himalayas, with some of the brightest fruits of the group. Large berries in luminous vermilion share long, straight branches with small, rounded leaves that color orange and yellow at the same time. Open, flaring plant 3-4 ft. tall. Z 7

Cotoneaster ‘Rothschildianus’ / A large evergreen shrub or small tree to 15 ft. tall. Flaring branches are clothed in slender 3-4 in. leaves and big clusters of berries in a surprising soft yellow. Choice and hard to find. Z 7

Cotoneaster rotundifolius (C. distichus) / Delightful cushion of straight twigs in orderly sprays creating layers of tiny, round leaves that color red before they drop. Small red berries chime in at year’s end. Dense growth to 18 in. high, twice as wide. Z 6

Cotoneaster salicifolius / WILLOW COTONEASTER / Large evergreen shrub or small tree to 15 ft. tall. Typically with many slender stems forming a graceful, flaring crown of narrow, willowy leaves and huge clusters of flaming red fruits in fall and winter. Z 6

Cotoneaster salicifolius ‘Gnome’ / Neat and compact, but hardly dull, this offspring of Csalicifolius makes a mound of narrow 1-2 in. leaves on branching runners dotted with small red berries. Great in containers, among rocks, as edging. Z 6

Cotoneaster splendens / A wide, open deciduous shrub to 5 ft. tall, carrying round, pointed 1 in. leaves of glossy green. These color orange as the large, deep red berries ripen in fall. Nice color and form for sunny border. Z 6

Cotoneaster ‘Strieb’s Findling’ / Lovely, dense carpet of tiny, round, bright green leaves and glowing red berries. Makes an undulating carpet 6 in. high and yards wide. Z 6

Cotoneaster suecicus ‘Juliette’ / An eye catching trailer with 1 in. leaves well splashed with white, touched with pink in winter.

Cotoneaster #1028 / A still unidentified plant that arose from seeds sent to us from an expedition to southwest China years ago. Round, 1/2 in. leaves on slender branches make an open, spreading evergreen 4 -5 ft. tall. Small, red berries fall and winter. Z 8?

Cow parsnip – see Heracleum

Coyote bush – see Baccharis pilularis

CRAMBE / COLEWORT / Brassicaceae / A small group of unusual perennials related to cabbage. Their large leaves make bold clumps that are effective most or all of the year. Tiny white flowers in big clusters are showy in summer. These plants need well-drained, sandy soil and sun to be their best. They are drought hardy, but more impressive with water.

Crambe cordifolia / GIANT KALE / Grandly different perennial from S. Russia producing a giant clump of broad, wavy 1-2 ft. leaves topped by a yard wide cloud of white, honey-scented flowers. Give it a 4 ft. wide space. Z 5

Cranberry, highbush – see Viburnum opulus

Cranesbill – see Geranium

CRATAEGUS / HAWTHORN / Rosaceae / This large genus of small, bushy trees is known mostly for its thorns. Too bad, since most have showy, often fragrant flowers, colorful fruits and bright fall tints. They are easy to grow, but do best in moist conditions in full sun. To keep them as formal trees may require much prickly pruning; they are usually best in their natural forms.

Crataegus douglasii / DOUGLAS HAWTHORN / One of two very similar West Coast species. Oval, toothed 2-3 in. leaves on slender twigs make an open canopy 15-25 ft. tall. Clustered white flowers lead to pea-sized blue-purple fruits that ripen amid bright fall foliage. A shrub or bushy tree of wet margins and meadows. Z 5

Crataegus mexicana (C. pubescens f stipulacea ) Evergreen to tardily deciduous (our form) small tree from Central America. Small, glossy, lobed leaves make a softly rounded canopy 15-25 ft. tall. Showy white flowers lead to bright coral-orange, 3/4 in. fruits. Rare and pretty, taking some drought. Z 7

Crataegus pinnatifida / MOUNTAIN HAWTHORN/ Grown as much for its edible fruit and for its beauty, this handsome 15 ft. Chinese tree is still rare in cultivation. Glossy 2-4 in. leaves with deep rounded lobes look almost oak-like. Clusters of white flowers produce inch-wide dark red fruits like tiny apples. These are sweetened and enjoyed as a treat in China. The leaves give a late show of yellow and orange. Sun; best where moist; z 6

CRINODENDRON / LANTERN TREE / Elaeocarpaceae / Two evergreen trees from Chile, long ago prized in gardens but still scarce. The species are quite different but both need well-drained soil and a mild climate. Once established in the cool-summer Pacific Coast region, they are fairly drought hardy. Z 8

Crinodendron hookerianum / RED LANTERN TREE / This narrowly upright tree slowly reaches 15-20 ft. and about half as wide. Leathery, tapered 3-4 in. leaves are deep green above, paler below, and make an elegant backdrop to the 1- inch lantern-like flowers in glowing red that dangle from the branches. A highlight of many great British gardens. Z 8b

Crinodendron patagua / PATAGUA / A narrow, somewhat open tree to 20 ft. with light green 2-3 in. leaves on wiry twigs. White 1 in. bells hang from the branches in summer, followed by orange seed capsules. Z 8

CROCOSMIA / MONTBRETIA / Iridaceae / These clump forming perennials from S. Africa are popular wherever they can be grown. Flaring trumpets in shades of yellow, orange and red hang from branching stalks above sword-like leaves. Plants may die to the ground in winter, but the colony of corms regenerates and expands each year, especially in the sunny, well-drained spots they prefer. They are drought hardy but may bloom longer with some water. Z 7-8

Crocosmia ‘Lucifer’ / A favorite for its stately 3-4 ft. stalks of fiery red flowers in summer. Magnificent for cutting.

CRYPTOMERIA japonica / JAPANESE CEDAR, SUGI / Taxodiaceae / Native to Japan and China, cryptomeria is important for both lumber and ornament. It has been cultivated for centuries and has produced many special forms, mostly dwarf. Sharp, slender, curved leaves (‘awl-like’) line upturned twigs that form tufts of foliage along the branches. Cinnamon colored bark peels in vertical shreds. Round, prickly 3/4 in. cones ripen in late fall. Old trees may be over 100 ft. tall, with a sinewy, flared trunk. Cryptomeria is adaptable, but at its best in moist soil, in sun or part shade. Z 6

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Auraucarioides’ / Delightfully curious shrub or tree with long, snaky branches. Eventually to 10 ft. or more.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans Aurea’ / Pretty and rare juvenile form (very slender leaves) making a fluffy pyramid to 10 ft. tall. Lime green in winter, with yellow highlights in summer.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Jindai Sugi’ / Pyramidal shrub or small tree to 15 ft. tall, its dense tufts of small, stiff needles held on upturned branches. Handsome rock garden specimen.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Nana’ / Slow and compact form to 6-8 ft. tall, with dense, tufted branchlets forming an irregularly rounded bush.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Sekkan Sugi’ / A slender tree 10-20 ft. tall brightening any scene with its lime green foliage generously highlighted creamy yellow at branch ends.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Spiralis’ / Slender, curling, bright green branches in an attractive interlacing pattern on a pyramidal tree to 30 ft.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Vilmoriniana’ / Much like ‘Nana’ but with even shorter, stiffer neeedles and a geometrically precise pattern of branchlets. A very slow, domed plant 4-6 ft. tall.

Cryptomeria japonica var. sinensis / CHINESE CRYPTOMERIA / The Chinese form of the species, usually a more slender tree with somewhat weeping branches.

CUNNINGHAMIA / CHINA FIR / Curessaceae / Two distinctive tall conifers from China and Taiwan, sometimes presumed to be related to Auraucaria (monkey puzzle, etc.) because of their large, sharp needles. They are really related to the cypresses and are similarly valuable for their wood. Their sharp, tapering leaves (awl-like) on long, arching twigs give them a striking texture. Round, prickly cones 1 1/2 in. wide are present all year. Shredding, cinnamon-gray bark shows between the layered branches. Give these trees a moist soil to encourage luxuriant beauty.

Cunninghamia konishii / Native to Taiwan, with slightly shorter, very glossy 1 in. needles on twigs that tend to arch over at the end. Rare in gardens, growing 30 ft. or more. Z 8

Cunninghamia lanceolata ‘Glauca’ / The species is native to China and Viet Nam; this form has 1 1/2 – 2 in. needles in a glossy blue green. The tree can reach 100 ft. in cultivation, eventually with an open crown and a long, slender trunk. Always a standout.

xCUPRESSOCYPARIS / HYBRID CYPRESS / Cupressaceae / The first of these vigorous trees arose in England over a century ago. Seeds from a Monterey cypress produced some obviously hybrid offspring from the pollen of a nearby Alaska yellow cedar. Several seedlings were named and propagated and eventually other hybrids came about. Most of these trees grow explosively almost anywhere and have become the go-to trees for screening. Though they are often too big for the spaces they are given, they are beautiful when well placed. All are drought hardy.

xCupressocyparis leylandii ‘Castlewellan Gold’ / A broad pyramid 20-30 ft. tall, with wispy, bright green foliage highlighted with yellow.

xCupressocyparis leylandii ‘Naylor’s Blue’ / A narrow 30-40 ft. pyramid of light blue green.

xCupressocyparis leylandii ‘Silver Dust’ / Deep green foliage dabbed here and there with white, on a dense 20 ft. pyramid.

xCupressocyparis ovensii / A cross of Alaska cedar with the Mexican cypress (Cupressus lusitanica). Handsome, full conical tree to 20 ft. tall. Feathery blue green foliage contrasts beautifully with red branches.

xCupressocyparis VBG / Our surprise seedling from a batch of Monterey cypress seed collected in San Francisco. We did not notice the other trees nearby, so the father of this bright green tree is unknown.

CUPRESSUS / CYPRESS / Cupressaceae / The name brings to mind the wind-sculpted trees of California’s Monterey Peninsula, but most cypressus out the wind are more or less pyramidal. Full, plump sprays of scaly foliage and round, woody cones are a constant; showy bark and lemony fragrance are a bonus on some. Most cypresses need to stay in Zone 8 or higher, but some are hardy to Zone 5. All need sun and good drainage.

Cupressus abramsiana / SANTA CRUZ CYPRESS / Rarest California cypress, protected in its tiny range. A narrow, richly green tree to 60 ft. all with fruit-scented foliage. Z 8

Cupressus arizonica / ARIZONA CYPRESS / Thick, blue-gray foliage contrasts with peeling bark in shades of red, purple, cream and gray. An open pyramid to 30 ft. tall. Z 7

Cupressus bakeri / MODOC CYPRESS / Similar to Arizona cypress in its pale green foliage and purple and gray bark, but fuller and taller, to 60 ft. Native to scattered mountain tops in N. California, SW Oregon. Z 5

Cupressus benthamii – see C. lusitanica

Cupressus dupreziana / SAHARAN CYPRESS / Critically endangered in the wild, this cypress from the mountains of Algeria is also rare in gardens. To 60 ft. tall and 2000 years old in the wild, with craggy, twisting branches of deep blue-gray foliage. Z 9

Cupressus goveniana / GOWEN CYPRESS / Companion of the Monterey cypress, a bushy, bright green tree to 20 ft. tall, with billows of bright green, sweetly aromatic foliage. Z 8

Cupressus lusitanica (C. benthamii) / MEXICAN CYPRESS / A narrow, conical tree to 100 ft. tall. Gracefully spreading branches carry drooping sprays of bright green to bluish foliage. A beautiful tree, hardier than once thought. Z 8 - see Cupressus pygmaea

Cupressus himalaica var. darjeelingensis / One of the most beautiful conifers, with wispy, blue green foliage hanging in streamers from spreading and ascending branches. Grows 20-30 ft. tall with broad, picturesque outline. Z 8

Cupressus lusitanica (C. benthamii) / MEXICAN CYPRESS / A narrow, conical tree to 100 ft. tall. Gracefully spreading branches carry drooping sprays of bright green to bluish foliage. A beautiful tree, hardier than once thought. Z 8

Cupressus macnabiana / MACNAB CYPRESS / A broad, pyramidal tree 20-30 ft. tall from scattered California locales. Its blue-green foliage is distinctive in having some sprays flattened. The large, knobby blue green cones are also unique. Z 7

Cupressus macrocarpa / MONTEREY CYPRESS / Famous for the flaring, windswept crowns of older trees on postcards, this makes a rather massive tree to over 100 ft. tall. Deep green foliage clothes sharp-tipped branches that spread out nearly as wide as the tree is tall. The lemon scented foliage is an added pleasure. Z 8, best near salt water.

Cupressus pygmaea ( C. goveniana var. pygmaea ) / MENDOCINO CYPRESS / The first of these trees found by botanists were growing on thick calcium deposits- the ‘Pygmy Forests’ of Mendocino County, Calif., where trees 100 years old are only 3-6 ft. tall. On ordinary soil, the species grows to 70 ft. or more, with rich green foliage on a layered pyramid. Z 8

Cupressus sempervirens / ITALIAN CYPRESS / Ubiquitous in its columnar form (below) this long cultivated European tree is typically a craggy pyramid in the wild. Deep gray-green foliage gives a somber character. To 30-50 ft. tall. Z 8

Cupressus sempervirens ‘Stricta’ / COLUMNAR ITALIAN CYPRESS / A well-known icon of plant architecture, conjuring luxury villas and swimming pools, this skinniest of trees will reach 30 ft. or more and barely 3 ft. wide. A wonderful feature when well placed, formally or otherwise.

Currant – see Ribes

Curry plant – see Helichrysum italicum

Custard apple – see Asimina

Cypress- see Cupressus

Cypress, false – see Chamaecyparis

Cypress, Lawson – see Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

Cypress, bald – see Taxodium

Cypress, Leyland – see xCupressocyparis leylandii

Cypress, Ovens – see xCupressocyparis ovensii

Cypress, pond – see Taxodium ascendens

D   D   D

DABOECIA / BELL HEATHER / Ericaceae /Two distinctive and lovely relatives of the heathers, told from them by their broader leaves, narrowly oval rather than needle-like or scaly. The flowers are larger, like 1/2 in. lanterns in white or shades of rosy lilac and magenta. The plants are rather loose mounds of wiry twigs, typically 12 in. high and twice as wide, flowering most of the year. Give them sun and good drainage; a rockery is ideal. Z 7

Daboecia cantabrica / IRISH BELL HEATHER / Native from Ireland to N. Spain, with flowers in a medium rosy pink from late spring through fall.

Daboecia cantabrica ‘Alba’ / Flowers a refreshing white.

Daboecia cantabrica -dark rose / Flowers in a rich dark rose.

Dacrycarpus dacrydioides – see Dacrydium dacrydioides

DACRYDIUM / RIMU / Podocarpaceae / Conifers from New Zealand and tropical Southeast Asia, unusual and rare in gardens. They tend to bear several distinct foliage types, progressing from one to another as they age. Seeds are carried in colorful, fleshy berry-like arils. Most species are tender; below is one that survives in warmer parts of Z 8.

Dacrydium dacrydioides ( Dacrycarpus d. )/ MOUNTAIN RIMU / A pyramidal to broadly columnar tree to 30 ft. or more, native to New Zealand. Bright green, almost heather-like foliage in billowy tufts is carried on weeping branches well studded with bright red, pea-sized fruits. Best in sheltered partial shade and moist soil.

Daisy, basalt – see Erigeron basalticus

Daisy, seaside – see Erigeron glaucus

DAPHNE / DAPHNE / Thymeliaceae / About 60 evergreen and deciduous shrubs from the Old World, prized for their deliciously fragrant flowers. The pea-sized berries of some are showy but all are poisonous. Daphnes have a reputation for struggling and dying, but they seem to grow better in the coastal Northwest than in most places and usually give no trouble. To ensure success, give them good drainage and keep them on the dry side rather than too wet.

Daphne x burkwoodii ‘Carol Mackie’ / A dense dome of narrow 1 1/2 in. leaves in medium green, edged in cream. Clusters of tiny pinkish white, fragrant flowers appear in late spring and lightly into summer. One of the most elegant variegated shrubs, slowly reaching 3 ft. high and 5 ft. wide. Z 5

Daphne odora ‘Marginata’ / FEBRUARY DAPHNE /Beloved for its early fragrance, this evergreen grows 2-3 ft. tall and twice as wide. Narrow 3-4 in. leaves are glossy rich green thinly edged in creamy yellow. Clusters of 1/2 in. lilac pink flowers open from January to March, depending on weather, and scent the whole garden with their lemony perfume. Best in part or full shade and well-drained humus. Z 7

Daphne tangutica / A dense evergreen shrub 2 ft. tall and somewhat wider. Glossy 1 in. leaves are crowded by clusters of pale rose, richly fragrant flowers in late spring, followed by orange berries. Give good light and water sparingly.

DAPHNIPHYLLUM / Daphniphyllaceae / Several noble evergreen shrubs or small trees from Asia, quite rare in gardens despite their qualities. Most resemble rhododendrons superficially, but lack the big flowers. The flowers they have, tiny deep red ones on knobby clusters, actually make a rather nice show. They are followed, on female plants, by blue berries on red stalks, also nice close-up in fall and winter. These undemanding plants are best in part or full shade and become drought-hardy with age.

Daphniphyllum macropodum / A big, domed shrub or tree to 15 ft. tall. Narrowly oval leaves 6-10 in. long on pink stalks are silvery below, clustered handsomely at the branch ends. Z 7

DECAISNEA fargesii / BLUE BEAN TREE / Lardizabalaceae /A rather spare deciduous shrub 8-15 ft. tall and about as wide. Thick branches are topped by clusters of long, feathery, walnut-like leaves. Small greenish flowers lead to hanging clusters of fat 3-4 in. ‘beans’ in metallic ultramarine blue. Beyond the head-turning display of the fruits, which nicely complement the soft yellow fall foliage, this is a pleasing and sturdy feature for part shade. Drought-hardy once well established.

DASYLIRION / SOTOL / Agavaceae / Spiky, yucca-like plants from the Southwest and Mexico. Very slender, leaves radiate from a short, or sometimes tall, stem. Tiny creamy flowers in club-like spikes tower over the plants in summer. The hardier species are good into Z 7 and add a big surprise to a tame garden. Give them sun and sharp drainage.

Dasylirion wheeleri / DESERT SPOON / Slender, gray 3-4 ft. leaves with toothed edges form a beautiful spherical cluster. Tiny creamy flowers in frothy spikes atop 8-12 ft. stems. Sun, drainage; drought-hardy. z7-8

DEUTZIA / Hydrangeaceae / A large group of mostly deciduous shrubs from southern and eastern Asia and Central America. Those in cultivation are mostly from China and are hardy large shrubs with stiffly arching branches carrying tapered leaves and clusters of small bells in white or variously tinged pink or purple in late spring or early summer. Tiny seeds are dispersed from small capsules in fall and winter. Many kinds have interesting peeling bark. Deutizias are easy to grow in sun or part shade, best where moist but also fairly drought hardy.

Deutzia ‘Contraste’ / An old hybrid with pinkish white petals marked purple on the back. Grows 8 ft. tall. Z 6

Deutzia corymbosa / A broad, spreading shrub from the Himalayas, to 6 ft. tall, with pale, peeling bark. Tiny, round flowers in dense, domed clusters are soft lilac fading white, scented of honey, in early summer. A real beauty, especially when the shrub is a mix of open blooms and sprays of tiny pink buds. Z 6

Deutzia glauca / A rounded Chinese shrub 6 ft. tall with 4 in. leaves of papery texture. Small white flowers, sometimes spotted purple, open in slender clusters in late spring. Z 5

Deutzia ‘Magicien’ / Flowers of this 6-8 ft. shrub are deep pink inside, paler outside, edged white, in big sprays. A well-praised cultivar with showy, peeling reddish bark. Z 6

Deutzia ‘Mont Rose’ / A fine shrub 6-8 ft. tall with masses of pink flowers tinged dark rose in summer on gracefully arched branches. Z 6

Deutzia parviflora / MONGOLIAN DEUTZIA / A rounded shrub to 6 ft. tall, with oval 2-4 in. leaves and large clusters of small white flowers in June. Z 4

Deutzia x rosea / A variable hybrid with generous clusters of strawberry pink flowers in late spring. Ours is a 4-5 ft. shrub spreading, even sprawling, much wider. Nice at the top of a wall or slope. Z 6

Deutzia scabra ‘Candidissima’ / To 8-10 ft. tall and not quite as wide, its upright branches arching stiffly into a rounded crown. Narrow, scratchy leaves of velvety green combine with narrow, upright clusters of double white flowers, each a pompom of narrow petals. Maroon and cream bark peels in ribbons. Z 5

Deutzia taiwanensis / A rare shrub to 6 ft. tall. Arching branches lined with narrow, 4 in. leaves, silvery beneath, interspersed with long clusters of 1/2 in. white flowers in summer. Z 7

DICHROA / EVERGREEN HYDRANGEA / Hydrangeaceae / Asian evergreen shrubs related to hydrangea, as you would expect by their broadly oval, toothed leaves and domed clusters of blue flowers. The dichroas go further, though, with their clusters of blue or purple berries. Easy to grow in light shade, they are best with water. Z 8

Dichroa febrifuga / CHINESE QUININE / Rounded shrub to 5 ft. tall and wide. Thick branches carry broad, 3-4 in. deeply veined leaves with round clusters of flowers of indigo blue followed by, and often overlapping with, clusters of small berries ripening from rosy purple to cobalt blue. A rich color treat.

DIERAMA / WAND FLOWER / Iridaceae / These distinctive perennials come from South Africa, where they are found mainly in moist habitats. Evergreen clumps of thick, grassy foliage sprout long, wiry stems arrayed at their ends with narrow bells in various reds, pinks, and purples. Dieramas add special grace and even motion to a planting, as their flowers wave in the breeze. Easy to grow, they need only decent soil and sun; they are drought hardy but always show their appreciation for water. Z 7

Dierama pulcherrimum / ANGELS FISHING ROD / Above a 2 ft. foliage clump rise flower stems 6 ft. long, arching way over with the weight of their 2 in. bells in shades of purple. Uniquely beautiful.

Diplaucaus aurantiacus – see Mimulus aurantiacus

DIPTERONIA sinensis / CHINESE MONEY TREE / Aceraceae (now Sterculiaceae) / A very rare small tree related to the maples. Feathery 1-2 ft. long leaves color soft yellow in fall as large clusters of 1 in. coin-like seeds ripen to rusty pink. A very open tree to 30-40 ft. tall and nearly as wide. Sun or part shade; fairly drought hardy; Z 8

DODECATHEON / SHOOTING STAR / Primulaceae / Charming and unmistakable perennials, mainly from western North America. Clumps of oval, bright green or bluish leaves and dainty, pointed flowers with swept-back petals make these choice additions to a cool rock garden or in a planting of rhododendrons, ferns and woodland groundcovers. Most take sun if kept moist; all are happy in light shade, in humusy, well-drained soil. They are very hardy.

Dodecatheon jeffreyi / SIERRA SHOOTING STAR / Clumps of narrow, bright green leaves and 12-18 in. stalks each carrying several nodding 1 in. blooms with swept-back petals of rose pink and a blue-black tip ringed in white. For cool, moist rock garden. z5

Dodecatheon poeticum / POET’S SHOOTING STAR / Above clumps of spatula-shaped 2-5 in. leaves rise 10-12 in. stems carrying nodding, pointed flowers of bright magenta in late spring. Delicate beauty for sunny, well-drained but moist conditions. Z 6

Dong qing – see Ilex purpurea

DRIMYS / Winteraceae / Evergreen shrubs and trees from the Southern Hemisphere, appreciated for their handsome foliage, starry white flowers in clusters, and in some, for their medicinal qualities. They are easy to grow in a mild climate, in part or full shade, where they are drought hardy.

Drimys lanceolata / TASMANIAN PEPPER / A most attractive large shrub from Tasmania reaching 10 ft. or so. Densely branched but still soft in outline, with narrow, 2-3 in. leaves on red stems and twigs. Flowers like white asterisks open in clusters in summer and lead to aromatic black fruits. Z 8